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首页 ::  Magento开发 ::  Magento SEO优化 ::  什么是Magento Magento的要素和术语
 
什么是Magento Magento的要素和术语

  作者: Magento   |   2010-06-29     阅读次数:1174     关键字:Magento完整模板,Magento插件


第一章:什么是Magento
Magento是一项新的专业的开放源代码的电子商务解决方案,提供前所未有的灵活性和控制. 有了Magento就不再会觉得被你的电子商务解决方案所困扰.
因为是开放源代码, Magento的代码可以免费下载到. 可以今天就到www.magentocommerce.com/download 去下载你的拷贝.
在本指南中,我们将介绍关键概念并从安装Magento到输入产品等一步步让你建立你的Magento商店.

要素和术语(Elements and Terminologies)
Magento由一些定义站点的功能,设计和商务逻辑的不同要素构成. 对描述这些Magento系统要素的术语有很深入的了解对于使用这本用户手册是非常关键的. 在本章节中所引入的这些术语很可能对你来讲是一个新的领域, 不必慌张,彻底的读懂它们. 但最重要的是,如果你不能充分的理解所有这些新术语也不要灰心,本章节只是用来引入它们,后面的章节将更深入全面的介绍这些简单的定义.

网站和商店(website and store)
Magento最强大的特点之一是可以从一个后台管理多个网站和商店. 这使得店主可以管理不同网址的商店,在相同网址上用不同语言显示相同的产品,以及其它各种设置. 如果你只是在一个网址用一种语言来卖你的产品,那样你就不需要此功能,但是可轻易扩展更多语言的能力使得Magento可以随着你的商务从国内市场成长为国际市场时而升级.

网站(website)
一个网站由一个或者多个共享相同顾客信息,订单信息和购物车的商店构成. 这是一个很宽泛的术语,可以用来界定个别商人的独特需求. 

商店(store)
商店可以由多重不同方式建立起来, 但是需要记住如果它们是同一个网站的一部分,它们将共享某些信息.

商铺界面(store views)
商铺界面主要用来实现不同语言,举个例子,如果你需要一个商店显示英语和西班牙语,比如你只需创建一次商店并为它创建两个不同的store views.

一些界定网站和商店的不同用途的情况如下:

方案 1: 一个站点拥有许多其他的子商店:

      举例:比如一个网站把电器产品和服装分别作为两个不同的商店独立运作。

what-is-magento1

方案 2: 两个商店分别有两套不同的界面。(Two Stores with two store views each )

举例:这种方案可以用来设置不同语言的界面。

what-is-magento2

方案 3: 一个站点只有一个界面。

what-is-magento

Magento最通常的设置是一个站点一个商店。但是理解多个站点和多个商店的功能可以帮助你理解为什么有的参数要定义成全局的默认值,而有的参数要只是分配到站点或商店级别。

(The most common setup will be a one website and one store setup, but understanding the functionality of multiple websites and stores will help you understand why certain values are defined as global defaults and why others are only assigned on the website or store level.)

Magento的结构Magento’s Architecture
Magento是在Zend 框架基础上建立起来的,这点保证了代码的安全和稳定。选择Zend的原因有很多,但是最基本的是因为zend 框架提供了面向对象代码库并且有很好的团队支持。

通过这个框架,Magento主要围绕三个基本点建立。

灵活性: 我们相信每一个解决方案都像它的商务支持一样是独一无二的. Magento的代码可以无缝定制.
可升级性: Magento可方便的实行定制且不丧失升级的能力, 因为核心代码是从社区和地方自订分离的.
速度和安全: 开发人员所使用的代码标准遵循了最佳做法,从而最大化了软件的效率,并且提供了安全的网络店面.
这一章我们将介绍Magento的关键概念和术语。即使你不会开发或设计Magento,这些概念和术语也将帮助你更好的建立自己的网上商店。

内核Core
Magento内核包含了包括下载版本在内的所有功能。核心代码是Magento核心团队开发或认证的模块集合。我们不推荐编辑核心代码因为那会影响将来Magento升级的功能。

本地的Local
本地扩展(Local extensions)是Magento的用户化设置,它仅存在于用户的本地拷贝。这些扩展将被放置在一个本地文件夹下,不会因升级内核代码而受到干扰。他们是一种不同类型的扩展,功能和内核代码一样,仅是目录不同。

Local extensions are customizations of Magento which reside only on a user’s local copy. These extensions will be placed in a local folder, so that they do not interfere with upgrades to the core code, and in order to differentiate them from community contributions. There are different types of extensions, which we will get into in a moment, but they will all reside in the same directory.

Local extensions function just as core code does, only the directory is different.

社区Community
社区贡献(Community contributions)是仅当下载时驻留在社区文件夹里。和本地扩展一样,Magento网店店长可以在享用额外功能的同时不用为升级将来的magento版本而烦恼。

Community contributions are just that, and when downloaded will reside in the community folder. Just like local extensions, by keeping them separate from the core code Magento store owners are able to enjoy the additional functionality without compromising the ability to upgrade to future Magento versions.

扩展Extensions
简单的说,扩展就和它的名字一样。一个或者多个文件打包在一起实现magento的一些扩展功能。一些限制和条件禁止扩展修改magento的内核代码。确保任何扩着的功能不会阻碍用户升级到magento的新版本。

扩展可以在管理面板里安装,或者直接从magento connect里下载。这些过程会在后面的文章里提到。但是让我们先来看三种类型的扩展:

模块Modules

模块是一种延伸了Magento特点和功能的扩展。你也许会应为其他一些软件而熟悉模块这个概念。但如果不是,一些模块的具体实例比如额外的支付网关,或者促销工具可以帮助你理解。
what-is-magento4

接口Interface
接口是

An interface is a collection of themes that determines the visual output and frontend functionalities of your store. An interface can be assigned on either the website-level, store-level or website and store level through the admin panel. We will cover assigning interfaces later in the book, for now let’s take a look at the components of a theme.

主题Themes

A theme is any combination of layout, template and/or skin file(s) that create the visual experience of your store. Magento is built with the capacity to load multiple themes at once, and therefore distinguishes themes into two types:

Default Themes – Every interface comes with a theme called ‘default’ which is the main theme of an interface. When you assign an interface to your store, the application automatically looks for this theme ‘default’ and loads it to the front-end. In order to customize your store design, you can either modify this theme, or create a non-default theme in addition and load it alongside the default. The default theme must contain all the required layouts, templates and skins to run a store error-free and hence is the lowest theme in the theme hierarchy.
Non-Default Themes – A non-default theme can contain as many or as few theme files as you see fit for your needs. This type of theme is intended for creating temporary seasonal design changes to a store without having to create a whole new default theme—By creating a few images and updating some of the CSS, you can easily turn your store from a real bore to a stand-out seasonal Christmas store.
Lets take a look at the components of a theme:

Layouts – Layouts are basic XML files that define the block structure for different pages, as well as controlling the META information and page encoding. Layout files are separated on a per-module basis, with every module bringing with it its own layout file.
Templates – Templates are PHTML files that contain (X)HTML markups and any necessary PHP tags to create the logic for the visual presentation of information and features.
Skins – Skins are block-specific Javascript and CSS and image files that compliment your (X)HTML. What are blocks you ask? Good question, and don’t worry, we are almost done defining the components of Magento.
Blocks

Blocks are a way by which Magento distinguishes the array of functionalities in the system and creates a modular way to manage this array from both a visual and functional stand point. There are two types of blocks and they work together to create the visual output.

Structural Blocks – These are blocks created for the sole purpose of assigning visual structure to a store page. Examples would be the header, left column, main column and footer.
what-is-magento5
Content Blocks – These are blocks that produce the actual content inside each structural block. They are representations of each feature functionality in a page and employ template files to generate the (X)HTML to be inserted into its parent structural block. Examples are the category list, mini cart, product tags and product listing.
what-is-magento6
Unless you will be developing or designing for Magento you won’t need to know any more than these terms. For those of you who will be developing or designing custom modules and interfaces, make sure to read Chapter 12: Designing and Developing for Magento. Of course we suggest you read the book through first, as the next few chapters are full of helpful information.






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